Final farewell

dna
So I’ve come to the end of my blogging experience for now so I just decided to do a little final reflection on the past 12 weeks of biochemistry. Firstly I think that biochem was going to be A LOT of work, and it wasss!! lol. But I realized that sir was just trying to help us get really good course work marks to go into the exam with so I guess I could appreciate that. I actually enjoyed the lectures for biochemistry and the online videos just added so much to my learning experience. They were easy to understand and very educational, it also helped me to catch on to anything that I did not quite understand in class. The blog was interesting and sort of fun. The little quizzes in class every week was something I totally hated at first but I realized that it was actually helping me keep up with my work so that I don’t have to totally cram for finals. All in all I really understood my biochem topics and it was a great experience. I hope to great in my final exams and I wish all my fellow biochemians well in their exams to. Thank you Biochem JM.

2nd video review

Well this video done by Mr. Biochem JM was a very insightful one. It highlighted the ten reactions of glycolysis and the enzymes involved during the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate. I must say that this video made learning about glycolysis a lot easier. As it went through each of the ten steps one by one explaining what was happening, and what type of reaction was going on. It also showed where ATP was used and where I was produced.

I would definitely recommend this video to anyone who wants to earn about glycolysis, it was very educational and easy to understand.

2nd Published paper review

PIIS0140673610620909_gr1_lrg
Ball Phillip.2004. “Plants purify poisoned water”. Accessed April 11, 2013.http://www.nature.com/news/2004/040512/full/news040510-4.html
This paper speaks about a fast, cheap way of purifying poisoned water using plants. Yes PLANTS!! Who would think that plants could do something as amazing as that?

Well according to this journal ferns can significantly reduce the concentration of arsenic in water in just one day. This procedure is known as phytofiltration and can be used to purify water around the world. Phytofiltration is being looked at as a solution to treat poisoned water in Bangladesh an India particularly. Some scientists do not quite agree with this method though, since they think that ferns may not be able to handle these huge volumes of water. The procedure of phytofiltraion has been proven to be better than other arsenic- removal strategies because it does not produce an arsenic rich slug.

I think that this paper was quite interesting since I would think that the procedure for the removal of such a deadly poison as arsenic would be more complex. I would never imagine that such a simple plant like a fern would do that. One thing that that this journal lacked for me is information about how exactly ferns are able to do this and what mechanism they use. Other than that this article was a fascinating read.

My Enzyme Rhyme!!!!

pacman

Enzymes are specific
Now isn’t that terrific

They act on substrates
To speed up reaction rates

The substrate binds to the active site
Where they fit just right

Now in Fishers lock and key
The substrate and active site shape are complementary

There is also the induced fit hypothesis
The shape of the active site the substrate induces

Factors affecting enzyme reaction rates
Include substrate concentration, temperature, inhibitors and pH

Increase in concentration
Increases the rate of the reaction

With rise in temperature reaction rate is increased
This happens till the optimum temperature is reached

Passing the optimum temperature causes the enzyme to denature
Causing the unfolding of the protein tertiary structure

There are competitive, non- competitive, uncompetitive and mixed inhibition
They all differently affect the enzymes’ mission

These inhibitors affect the reaction’s Vmax and Km
Either increasing or reducing them.

To sum up enzymes are very powerful
Without them normal life would be impossible

Hope you had an awesome time
Listening to my ENZYME RHYME!!!!

Overview of topics- Cells and Carbohydrates

CELLS
cell_cartoon

– Smallest unit that perform life functions ( growth, metabolism ,response, replication)
– As the size of the cell increases > volume increases > surface area to volume ratio decreases > longer diffusion time
– Two categories of cells:
Prokaryotic: circular DNA, rigid cell walls, 0.5 micrometers, 70S ribosomes, flagellum, no membrane bound organelles.
Eukaryotic: linear DNA, no cell walls, 40 micrometers, 80S ribosomes, double and single membrane bound organelles.

CARBOHYDRATES
carbohydrates

– Composed of carbon and water (CH2O)n

– Significance:
Energy source
Structure
Storage
Precursor molecules

– Types
Monosaccharaides: simple sugars with multiple OH groups. Can be aldoses or ketoses Eg glucose, galactose, fructose

Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides joined by a condensation reaction and held together by a glycosidic bond. Eg maltose, sucrose, galactose

Polysaccaharides: many monosaccharides joined together by condensation. Each successive monosaccaride is added by a glycosidic bond. Eg starch, glycogen, cellulose

– Reducing sugars reduces something and is oxidized because it has a free anomeric C. They can be tested for using Tollens’ or benidics solution.
– Chiral carbons have four different groups attached to it.

– D and L designation- If OH is on the right hand its D and if OH is on the left hand its L.

– Most naturally occurring sugars are D isomers.

– Epimers are sugars that differ only in the configuration around one C atom.

– If OH is above the plain its β and if OH below the plain its α

1st Published paper review

AboutSickleCell

Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2011. “Pathophysiological insights

     in sickle  cell disease”. 134(4): 532–537. Accessed April 1, 2013.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237253/

 

This journal focuses on the pathophysiology of the sickle cell disease. A few years ago I lost a friend to this disease and I now have a cousin living with sickle cell. She has to undergo surgery at just the tender age of eleven. I was therefore inspired to learn more about the disease and this paper helped me to do just that.

The sickle cell disease was the first example of a molecular disease due to the finding of Haemoglobin S (HbS) by Linus Pauling. According to the journal an abnormality in the amino acid sequence of the beta- globin chain (β6 Glu à Val) brings about the disease. It further explains how this abnormality occurs bringing about the sickle shape of the red blood cell when deoxy-HbS is polymerized and a valine residue is substituted with glutamic acid in the β-globin polypeptide chain, at position 6. It also goes in-depth into the characteristics of the sickle red blood cells and how they are activated. Furthermore the journal describes how the pathophysiology of sickle cell helps to describe  VOC’s and haemolytic anemia .

I was really provided with a better understanding of sickle cell anemia by this journal. It lacked nothing in the information department and was very insightful and educational.